Episode 91 - How to say "because" (" te form" for expression of causes and reasons)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KSlVGhZFq-g&t=330s

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Verb てform / Verb なくて

いadjective くて/ いadjective なくて

1.) The former and the latter clauses have the time relation. Ex) the former occurs first and then the latter.

みなさんに会(あ)えて、うれしいです。

I'm glad to meet you all.

手紙(てがみ)を読(よ)んで、安心(あんしん)しました。

I read the letter and was relieved.

今朝(けさ)は寒(さむ)くて、起(お)きられませんでした。

It was so cold this morning that I couldn't get up.

バスが来(こ)なくて、学校(がっこう)に遅(おく)れました。

The bus didn't come and I was late for school.

時間(じかん)がなくて、どこもいけません。

I can't go anywhere because I don't have time.

手紙(てがみ)が来(こ)なくて、さびしいです。

I'm lonely because I didn't receive a letter.

2.) If the latter clause does not involve any action, it can be used.

When the latter clause expresses some actions and the time relation of the two clauses is not clear or the action of the latter clause occurs before the former clause, only から can be used.

〇今晩(こんばん)友達(ともだち)が来(き)ますから、部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)します。

✖今晩(こんばん)友達(ともだち)が来(き)て、部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)します。

3.) If the latter clause includes the forms which show the speaker's volition , only から can be used. (しろ、するな、してください、したいです、しましょうetc.)

〇明日(あした)テストがあるから、勉強(べんきょう)しろ!

✖明日(あした)テストがあって、勉強(べんきょう)しろ!

There will be a test tomorrow, so study!

危(あぶ)ないから、さわるな!

Don't touch it because it's dangerous!

時間(じかん)がないから、急(いそ)いでください。

I don't have time, so please hurry.

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