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Welcome to the Backend Engineering Show podcast with your host Hussein Nasser. If you like software engineering you’ve come to the right place. I discuss all sorts of software engineering technologies and news with specific focus on the backend. All opinions are my own. Most of my content in the podcast is an audio version of videos I post on my youtube channel here http://www.youtube.com/c/HusseinNasser-software-engineering Support my work on PayPal https://bit.ly/33ENps4 🧑‍🏫 Courses I Teac ...
 
Andre Wyatts (@blanknaem) and Ryan Tanner (@RTanner1337) take a look at the start of the week to the end of the week at the end of the week. A look back at the week that was and then some. Email backended@blanknaem.com if you think there's something we should look at, or hit up our Twitter accounts!
 
Welcome to the Building the Backend Podcast! We’re a data podcast focused on uncovering the data technologies, processes, and patterns that are driving today’s most successful companies. You will hear from data leaders sharing their knowledge and insights with what’s working and what’s not working for them. Our goal is to bring you valuable insights that will save you and your team time when building a modern data architecture in the cloud. Topics will span from big data, AI, ML, governance, ...
 
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show series
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show I discuss consistent hashing a very important algorithm in distributed computing specially in database systems such as Apache Cassandra and DynamoDB. 0:00 Intro 2:00 Problem of Distributed Systems 5:00 When to Distribute 7:00 Simple Hashing 9:30 Where Simple Hashing Breaks 11:40 Consistent Hashing 18:…
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show I go through and discuss the Homa Protocol paper which attempts to replace TCP as a protocol in the data centers. I learned a lot from this paper, I have my criticisms of certain aspects, timestamps for topics discussed below. It appears there is a path to replace TCP in the datacenter and professor J…
 
ByteDance, the company behind TikTok is proposing few patches to the linux kernel to make kernel reboots via kexec go from 500ms down to 15 ms saving huge time in updating kernel on thousands of machines. Let us discuss this 0:00 Intro 1:30 Linux Kernel Reboot Options 2:30 how kexec works 4:00 The optimization 5:00 Going through the patch 6:00 Upda…
 
We discuss the CVE-2022-2274 OpenSSL Vulnerability. The OpenSSL 3.0.4 release introduced a serious bug in the RSA implementation for X86_64 CPUs supporting the AVX512IFMA instructions. This issue makes the RSA implementation with 2048 bit private keys incorrect on such machines and memory corruption will happen during the computation. As a conseque…
 
Postgres 15 introduces a new syntax to treat nulls as not distinct. This will allow developers to create a unique constraint on nullable fields and have inserts with nulls fail instead of having it allowed based on today's standard. Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://network.…
 
memchr() is a function that searches in a memory block for a character, this has been recently improved in the latest linux patch and we can learn something from this improvement I think, lets discuss. https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=Linux-Kernel-Faster-memchr Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link …
 
Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Compatible Edition now supports PostgreSQL major version 14 (14.3). Let us discuss this news. https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2022/06/amazon-aurora-supports-postgresql-14/ 0:00 Intro 1:00 Database on the Cloud options 3:45 Amazon Aurora supports Postgres 14 6:00 Postgres 14 vs Postgres 13 --- Support this podcast…
 
Rogers Communications, the Canadian ISP is down. One of its ASNs (they have many) is AS812 with over 5 million IP addresses. Tried a few and none of them can be pinged from the US (not sure if ICMP is disabled or not) This is a huge deal for all Canadians and businesses affected. So sorry for every one who is affected by this, and kudus to all the …
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show I’ll discuss Fill Factor index property, an important key parameter for a good performing database. I will also discuss how it is a double edge sword and can break or Make your db.Chapters0:00 Intro1:48 Start of the Show4:30 Database Storage Representation6:30 IO Cost10:00 Index Page13:30 Page Splits …
 
YugabyteDB is a postgres compatible and cloud native database. Read committed isolation level is a critical feature and adding it might lure more postgres customer’s to move to the cloud native database. But will they compete in front of Google’s new AlloyDB ? 0:00 Yogabyte implements Read committed 4:20 Isolation Levels 8:40 Can YugabyteDB compete…
 
Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://network.husseinnasser.com Transport Layer security or TLS is a protocol that encrypted the communication between client and server. TLS can also be used to authenticate the server, when the client also requires authentication this is called …
 
In this episode we go through the cloud flare outage blog. https://blog.cloudflare.com/cloudflare-outage-on-june-21-2022/ Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://network.husseinnasser.com --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/support…
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show I go through the Extensible Prioritization Scheme for HTTP. This RFC addresses the problem in HTTP where the client prefers certain requests to be served before others. This RFC was designed by Lucas Pardue from Cloudflare and Kazoo Oku from Fastly. 0:00 The Request Priority Problem 13:00 How RFC 9218…
 
IPv4 UniCast Extensions Project attempts to unreserve old IPv4 subnets so they are publicly addressable. Is it worth it? Let us discuss https://blog.apnic.net/2022/05/31/cutting-down-on-ip-address-waste/Unicast Use of the Formerly Reserved 127/8 https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-schoen-intarea-unicast-127/ Unicast Use of the Lowest Address in …
 
Fantastic gains in Postgres 15! improved sorting by 371%. Normally you can avoid sorting by using an index access path. However, you can’t always have an index on every group by, order by, join or distinct predict. This will come handy. Let us discuss Resources https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=PostgreSQL-15-Faster-Sort https://te…
 
As a new parent, you get exposed to a whole new world. There is this new toddler song “Five little monkeys jumping on the bed” where it starts with five monkeys jumping on the bed and one falls off the bed and the mom calls the doctor and then another monkey falls and the mom calls the doctor again. This keeps going until all monkeys are no longer …
 
Eric Dumazet, a Linux kernel and a Google Principal software engineer pushed a new change to Linux to support a new feature in Linux called BIg TCP. How about we discuss this resources https://www.phoronix.com/forums/forum/software/general-linux-open-source/1325637-linux-5-19-networking-brings-big-improvements-with-big-tcp-purelifi-more-hardware ht…
 
Database logging is a critical feature to maintain durability, in this show I discuss them in details 0:00 intro 1:00 ad 3:30 Start of the Show 6:00 What is commit 9:30 What if a commit fails half way 11:00 WAL 23:00 Checkpointing 27:00 fsync 33:00 Undo logs Get $20 off of your first order of cometeer quality delicious coffee https://cometeer.com/h…
 
In this video I discuss the developer mental health, stress, pressure, expectation, how to understand and shed light on the issues, and what might cause it all. Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://network.husseinnasser.com --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/supp…
 
In this video I explain how we can use two-phase commit protocol works to achieve atomic distributed transaction. 0:00 What is atomicity 3:00 Distributed Transaction 6:00 Two phase commit protocol 13:00 Limitations of Two phase commit protocol Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https…
 
Welcome to another database question. In this question I created a community poll question and provided some answers. All answers can be correct of course but the question is what is the most efficient? this is what I try to explore in this video and compare how different database platforms such as mysql or Postgres differ in those implementations;…
 
DNS or Domain Name System, despite its drawbacks, is brilliantly designed for scale. We can learn few lessons from this protocol especially when designing our own apps. This episode of the backend engineering show I go through how DNS works, the pros and the cons and attacks that happened on this system. 0:00 Intro 2:00 Overview DNS 7:40 How DNS wo…
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show we discuss the Internet Protocol. A beautiful, elegant protocol that made the Internet possible. We discuss why we need an IP address, how routing is done and how VPNs take advantage of the agnostic nature to encrypt traffic--- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/support…
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show we discuss an article written by the Forem team illustarting a bug they recently fixed in their caching layers. They go into good level of details explaining the 3 levels of caching that they have. I go through this article in this episode and give my opinion at the end as to why we shouldn’t really c…
 
Backend database applications relay on good storage systems for performance, durability and low latency. SSDs have been a great invention that changed the storage game compared to mechanical drives. However, SSDs came with their own sets of problems which can cause database reads and writes to plummet after a while. This episode discusses the curre…
 
Google linux boxes have over 16 NVMe SSD PCIe Express drives.When a shutdown signal is sent to linux, the OS iterate through each NVMe and send synchronous request to shutdown that takes 4.5 seconds. This adds up to over a minute to achieve a reboot. Google patches linux with asynchronous Shutdown APIs Resources https://www.phoronix.com/forums/foru…
 
Hash tables are effective for caching, database joins, sets to check if something is in a list and even load balancing, partitioning and sharding and many other applications. Most programming languages support hash tables. However they don’t come without their cost and limitations lets discuss this.0:00 Intro1:50 Arrays3:50 CPU Cost (NUMA/M1 Ultra)…
 
Aggregate functions like Count, max, min, avg performance really depends on how did you tune your database for that kind of workload. Let us discuss this. 0:00 Intro 1:22 SELECT COUNT(*) 4:30 SELECT AVG(A) 5:15 SELECT MAX(A) 8:00 Best case scenario 11:30 Clustering 14:00 Clustering Sequential Writes 17:19 Clustering Random Writes 20:30 Summary --- …
 
On March 8 2022 Spotify and Discord experienced an outage latest 2-3 hours. The reason was a configuration on the xDS formats on Google Traffic Director. Let us discuss how this change caused the outage and what Spotify did to mitigate that outage without relying on Google restoring the service back up.ResourcesSpotify outagehttps://engineering.ats…
 
In this episode we speak with Justin Borgman, Chairman & CEO at Starburst, which is based on open source Trino (formerly PrestoSQL) and was recently valued at $3.35 billion after securing their series D funding. In this episode we discuss convergence of DW’s / DL's, why data lakes fail and much much more. Top 3 takeaways The data mesh architecture …
 
The Russia-Ukraine Cyberwar has reached a peak this past week. In this video I explain the multiple ways a Denial of Service attacks can happen and how to protect against themIntro 0:00What is DOS? 1:00Long running requests 1:42Crash backend processes 3:30Exhaust Max connections 4:25Large response (web traffic) 5:42Lots of requests 8:27Complex requ…
 
In this episode we speak with Paul Singman Developer Advocate at Treeverse / LakeFS. LakeFS is an open source project that allows you to transform your object storage into a Git-like repository. Top 3 takeaways LakeFS enables use cases like debugging to quickly view historical versions of your data at a specific point in time and running ML experim…
 
Fundamentals of Database Engineering udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://database.husseinnasser.com Chrome, Edge and Firefox are approaching version 100. that version is 3 digit version where most websites only checked two digits. You can imagine what can go wrong. Lets discuss --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnas…
 
On 2/22/2022 Slack experienced a 3 hours outage from 6AM to 9AM PST because of a configuration change. That change lead to increase load to their database infrastructure which causes queries to starve. Lets discuss https://status.slack.com/2022-02-22 --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/support…
 
It looks like there is demand for bringing QUIC and HTTP/3 to NodeJS, someone donated $1000 dollar to make it happen. However, what are the use cases for supporting HTTP/3 in Nodejs? I talk about whether HTTP/3 should come to NodeJS in this video. https://rysolv.com/issues/detail/863986ce-c8d5-466d-abf4-476d3177452d --- Support this podcast: https:…
 
Five major Canadian banks went offline for hours blocking access to online and mobile banking as well as e-transfers for customers. There are no reports of what might have caused the outage so In this video we explain what might have caused it. https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/canadas-major-banks-go-offline-in-mysterious-hours-long-ou…
 
NVMe changed the game of fast SSD storage. The spec is being extended to support networked storage, I have some doubts that would like to discuss in this video. Fundamentals of Database Engineering udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https://database.husseinnasser.com Introduction to NGINX (link redirects to udemy with coupon) https:…
 
I stumbled upon a research calculating how big of quantum computer required to break bitcoin public key encryption. It will take them 300 million quantum bits to find the corresponding private key given a public key. That wasn’t really the most instructive thing really from that research. The interesting thing is how bitcoin design carefully hides …
 
NodeJS introduces importing network based modules in their latest release. Importing network based modules using `https:` and `http:` is supported under the `--experimental-network-imports` flag. This allows web browser-like imports to work in Node.js with a few differences due to application stability and security concerns that are different when …
 
I asked a question on my community post What port does your computer connect to when you visit google.com on your browser for the very first time? The answer really depends on the network configuration and that's what I discuss in this video. The answer could be HTTP port 80, HTTPS port 443, DNS port 53 or other answers that aren't even listed here…
 
In this episode we speak with Matt Topol, Vice President, Principal Software Architect @ FactSet and dive deep into how they are taking advantage of Apache Arrow for faster processing and data access. Below are the top 3 value bombs: Apache Arrow is an open-source in-memory columnar format that creates a standard way to share and process data struc…
 
In this episode of the backend engineering show I discuss the ramification of index page splits which results in fragmented index yielding slow query performance when using indexes. I go through what a page is, how a page is read and written in the database and finally discuss the current solutions to address this problem such as reindexing, fill f…
 
In this episode we speak with Chad Sanderson head of data and early stage startup advisor focused on data innovation @ Convoy and uncover their journey to implementing Amundsen, an open source data catalog. Below are the top 3 value bombs: Data Scientist’s should not be spending the majority of their time trying to find the data they are interested…
 
Multitenancy refers to placing two or more clients, customers or tenants so they share a single resource. The idea behind Multitenancy is to save on resources instead of giving each client its own resource (storage, app, memory, network etc..). You slice each part and give it to dedicated client. The number one rule is those tenants shouldn’t be aw…
 
Scientists at the Physics and Engineering Department of the UK’s Lancaster University published a new paper describing ULTRARAM. A Low-Energy, High-Endurance, Compound-Semiconductor Memory on Silicon.I think this tech is a game changer but I still have my doubts. Let us discuss0:00 Intro0:30 RAM4:00 SSD11:00 UltraRAM17:30 Doubts* RAM (Dynamic RAM) …
 
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